Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets. And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying all sorts of vessels, and statues and figures of animals made of wood and stone and various materials, which appear over the wall? Some of them are talking, others silent.
Men in the courts before snoozing juries, trying to get remedies by legal trickery, is a proof positive that they don't have enough education to arrange their own lives properly.
Just as disgraceful is going to the doctor, not with any real malady, but because they've filled their bodies with garbage, which the pompous medical profession manages to name as some new-fangled disease.
For a judge in the courts, on the other hand, experience in his field, experience of wrongdoing, would be a bad thing. A good judge would be an older man who spent his youth far away from wickedness, for evil can never know either itself or goodness.
We need a good man to make a wise judge. That is why I say that the purpose of both physical and mental education is to train the mind.
I don't need to spell out every detail of their singing classes, athletics and so forth do I? By 'stolen' I mean the process by which people give up their beliefs when confronted by clever argument.
By 'spirited away', I mean how people change their opinions when under the magical spell of pleasure or panic. We must do the same with our young Guardians; expose them to pleasure and fear, testing them like gold is tested in the furnace.
That is how we will choose which of the Guardians is to be a ruler and which is to assist the rulers as an Auxiliary. Ye citizens are brothers all, but as God fashioned you he mingled gold to some, silver to others and iron and bronze to the rest. The Rulers have gold; the Auxiliaries silver, farmers and artisans have iron and bronze.
You are all of one family and must strive that your children find each their proper place. If golden parents see a son of iron and bronze, they must harden their hearts and give him up to the life of husbandman or artisan.
If the son of craftworkers has the touch of gold, raise him then to the honour of a Guardian. This is as nature has ordered, for prophecy tells that when men of iron or bronze guard the State, it will be destroyed entire.
That is the story. Do you think they will believe it? But, let us return to earth. Once our Guardians have a safe place to found a community, they will need houses, not as men of means, but as soldiers. If a shepherd mistreats his sheep-dogs they will not protect the sheep.
Likewise, we must prevent our Auxiliaries, who are strong, from becoming savage tyrants rather than partners and friends. Education is a start, but their material needs matter too. So how should they live? They will eat together, and their houses will be open to all. We'll tell them that they have no need of gold or silver because mere earthly wealth cannot compare to the gold in their hearts.
Shall we make this law? These Guardians seem more like hired watchmen. But I am not trying to promote the happiness of any one class, but of the whole community. So, don't make us dress our farmers in robes and crowns, or let our potters laze around drinking.
The important thing is that each person does their own job, and does it in the very best way possible. Wealth makes men idle and careless; poverty makes them slovenly and rebellious.
So our Guardians must try to prevent them. So often looked on as unimportant child's play, it is essential for a sound State that children are brought up with sound character. Now, do we need any more laws?
But there is one further matter we ought to consider. But religion is not our business, I think we can follow tradition and leave such things to the Oracle of Apollo. So, with that, Adeimantus, I think we have a city founded for you.Did Plato Believe in Reincarnation?
John S. Uebersax, PhD. Here arguments for and against a Platonic belief in reincarnation are presented. It is commonly said that Plato had a 'doctrine' of reincarnation. Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied philosophers.
He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is. A brief discussion of the life and works of Plato, with links to electronic texts and additional information.
Did Plato Believe in Reincarnation? John S. Uebersax, PhD. Here arguments for and against a Platonic belief in reincarnation are presented.
It is commonly said that Plato . Terminology.
The allegory of the cave is also called the analogy of the cave, myth of the cave, metaphor of the cave, parable of the cave, and Plato's Cave..
Summary. Plato of Athens The Republic Squashed down to read in about minutes "Until Philosophers are kings, or kings have the spirit of Philosophy, cities will never have rest from their troubles.".